Texas (State)

State of Texas
Coordinates 31°N, 100°W
General
Surface 696,241 km²
(2.5% water)
Inhabitants
(2016)
28,762,596
(40.0 inhabitant/km²)
Capital city Austin
Politics
Governor Greg Abbott
Side Republican Party
Legislature Texas Legislature
House of Lords Texas Senate
House of Commons Texas House of Representatives
Senators John Cornyn (R) and Ted Cruz (R)
Delegates 25 Republicans
11 Democrats
Other
Time zone −6 / −7
Joined Dec 29, 1845
For joining Republic of Texas
Nickname Lone Star State
Song Texas, Our Texas
ISO 3166-2 US-TX
Website texas.gov

Texas is one of 50 states of the United States of America. It is the second largest state in the United States after Alaska, measured by area. With 28 million inhabitants, it is the second largest state in population after California. The postal abbreviation of the “Lone Star State”, as its nickname goes, is TX.

The state, in the southern US, has many oil wells. The capital of Texas is Austin, the largest city is Houston. Other major major cities include Dallas, El Paso, and San Antonio.

History

The area now called Texas was originally settled by Native American tribes. In present-day Texas still live Apaches, Atakapa, Bidai, Caddo, Comanche, Karankawa, Kiowa, Tonkawa, and Wichita.

On November 6, 1528, shipwrecked Spanish conquistador Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca became the first European to set foot on Texas soil. Texas was part of the Spanish colony of New Spain in the early centuries after the Spanish conquest. From 1685 to 1689, Texas belonged to the French colony of Fort Saint Louis. After Mexican Independence, in 1821, Texas became part of Mexico along with Coahuila de Zaragoza as Coahuila y Texas.. Meanwhile, many Anglo-Americans migrated to Texas at the invitation of the Mexican government, which eventually outnumbered the Hispanic population. The Anglo-Texans were called Texians, the Spanish/Mexican Texans Tejano’s. When Mexican dictator Antonio López de Santa Anna replaced the 1824 Constitution with a more centralized constitution and Coahuila y Texas with departments in 1835, the Texians proclaimed Texas independence.

The legendary Battle of the lamo still holds significant significance in Texas.

In 1835, the Texas War of Independence broke out. A famous turning point in the war was the Battle of the Álamo. This battle was not strategically important, but because of the brutality of the Mexicans, it was a boost for the morale of the Texans. Sam Houston would play a big part in the formation of Texas. Under his leadership, in the spring of 1836, at the legendary Battle of San Jacinto, the rebels defeated and captured Mexican Senator Santa Anna, who subsequently claimed independence for the Republic of Texas.acknowledged. Sam Houston played a key role in organizing the new government and became its first president.

The Texans considered the Rio Grande to be their western frontier, while previously it was the Nueces at Corpus Christi. In 1840 the independent Republic of the Rio Grande arose for a short time on the other side of the Rio Grande. When it was violently rejoined Mexico the same year, the Texans feared for their independence and sought further rapprochement with the United States. On December 29, 1845, United States President James Polk ratified a law annexing Texas. Texas became the 28th state of the United States. A year later, after a battle in the territory claimed by both Mexico and the United States, theMexican-American War. After this war, Texas’ northern and western borders still had to be determined, and that was settled by the Compromise of 1850. As a result, the state ceded a large part of its claimed territory in the west and north, where other states would later be founded.

Texas was a slave state. Despite the state being less dependent on slavery than the rest of the southern states, the parliament still chose to join the Confederate States of America. Sam Houston, who was governor at the time, argued for Texas to remain with the Union or else continue as an independent country. He was removed from office by parliament and refused help from Abraham Lincoln to stay on with the help of the military. Only when it became known that General Robert E. Leehad capitulated, General Gordon Granger announced on June 19, 1865, that the slaves of Texas were henceforth free. This day was henceforth celebrated by the black ex-slaves, if they were given the space for it, and lives on in the holiday Juneteenth. The first months after the capitulation were characterized by chaos, but the state would recover economically faster than the rest of the defeated south.

German immigrants settled in the Texas hill country in the mid-1800s, founding New Braunfels, Fredericksburg, Boerne, Schulenburg, Weimar, Walburg, and Comfort. They developed a hybrid language called Texas German, which is still spoken by ancient people today.

From 1866 to 1887, the Abilene Trail was used to move large herds of cattle from Texas to Kansas. These herds were herded by cowboys on horseback and transported east on the Union Pacific Railroad upon arrival in Abilene. In 1900, the Galveston Hurricane, the deadliest natural disaster in United States history, swept across the state completely destroying the city of Galveston. In 1901, the Spindletop oil field was discovered, which formed the starting point for the Texas oil boom and for oil companies such as Gulf Oil, Texaco and Chevron. The large amount of oil that was extracted in the state from then on drastically reduced the price, allowing the American auto industry to take off.

In 1963, US President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas.

Geography

Guadalupe Peak to the west is the highest point in Texas

Fog over the Steinhagen Reservoir in the east of the state

Texas is the second largest state in the US after Alaska and covers an area of ​​696,241 km². Due to its size, there is a strong diversity in landscapes and climate.

The following geographic regions are distinguished:

  • Much of the state belongs to the Great Plains, which extend from the center of the state into western and northern Texas and the Texas Panhandle. Within this lie several plateaus including the Llano Estacado and the Edwards Plateau.
  • the Hill Country and the Edwards Plateau, a hilly area of ​​Central Texas enclosed by the Great Plains, bounded on the east by the Balcones Zone and the Blackland Prairie.
  • the Coastal Plain, from the Gulf of Mexico inland to San Antonio and southeast of Austin. Off the coast are the Texas barrier islands.
  • The Trans-Pecos Desert in the west of the state, which is part of the Chihuahua Desert.
  • The tropical forests, lakes and swamps in the eastern part of the state.

To the north is the Palo Duro Canyon, which is the second largest canyon in the country after the Grand Canyon. To the southwest is the Santa Elena Canyon through which the Rio Grande flows, forming the border with Mexico.

Texas borders Mexico in the southwest, where the Rio Grande forms the border. The state is bordered to the north by the state of Oklahoma, to the west by the state of New Mexico, to the east by the state of Louisiana, and to the northeast by the state of Arkansas. In the southeast, the state is located on the Gulf of Mexico. Most of Texas is in the Central time zone, the far west, including El Paso, is in the Mountain time zone.

Flora and fauna

Animals and plants native to Texas are sometimes named after this, such as the Texas toad lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum) and the Texas rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox).

Texas is the main part of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexipus) range, spreading north in the spring and south again in the fall.

Demographics

High-rise buildings in downtown Houston, Texas’ largest city.

According to TRACKAAH, Texas has a large number of Hispanics (Hispanics), about 38.2% of the population, and Latinos are expected to make up the largest group of all Texans by 2022. Most of them immigrated from Mexico, Central America and South America. Others, known as Tejano’s, are descended from people who lived in Texas before the state gained its independence from Mexico. Unlike other US states bordering Mexico, Texan culture gradually transitions into Mexican, resulting in a vibrant frontier region that is also reflected in Tex-Mex cuisine and music. The racial and ethnic problems found in many southern states are virtually absent in Texas.

In addition to Latinos, Texas has immigrant communities of Germans, Poles, Swedes, Norwegians, Czechs, French, and Dutch. Their influence can still be found in the place names, in the architecture, in the music, and in the cuisine of Texas. The city of the Netherlands in Texas was founded in 1897 by Dutch immigrants. The most important families were Reinstra and Doornbos and their descendants still live there. The Dutch history of the city is commemorated in the Dutch Windmill Museum on Boston Avenue.

Today, Asians from China, Taiwan, India and South Korea emigrate to Texas. They mainly settle in Houston and Dallas.

Texas has the most cities of all US states with more than 1 million inhabitants, namely three: Houston, San Antonio and Dallas.

Culture

Many Texans are extremely proud of their state, more than is usual in other states, and they will introduce themselves as Texans first and then Americans. The Alamo Mission is an important Texas symbol.

Two mottos are typical of the state. Don’t Mess with Texas was used by the government in the 1980s to warn of hefty fines against littering, but has since been more widely used. Another proverb is Everything is bigger in Texas except for… which indicates that the houses, cities, meals, wages etc. in this state are larger than in the rest of the country and the government is smaller again. Until Alaska ‘s accession in 1959, the state was the largest in the United States.

Texan cuisine has been influenced by Mexican because the area belonged to Mexico first and not least by the large Mexican community. This is reflected in the breakfast burrito, tex-mex cuisine, and chili con carne. The state is also known for its grill rooms and the many different barbecue sauces whose creators all too often keep the recipe a secret. The capital Austin has a quirky and progressive image. Called the The Live Music Capital of the World, it hosts the South by Southwest festival every year.

The state is further associated with cowboys, the western genre, country music, and tex-mex music.

Administrative division

According to COUNTRYAAH, Texas is divided into 254 counties, making it the state with the most counties. Counties have powers over general affairs in their territories, but also partly fulfill the functions of a city government. This is the case for households that are not within a city boundary. The cities also have administrative powers, which correspond to those of the Dutch and Belgian municipalities.

County Inhabitants
1 July, 2007
County Seat Inhabitants
1 July, 2007
Anderson 56.760 Palestine 18.130
Andrews 13.140 Andrews 9693
Angelina 82.812 Lufkin 34.070
Aransas 24.721 Rockport 9425
Archer 9004 Archer City 1810
Armstrong 2071 Claude 1263
Atascosa 43.589 Jourdanton 4295
Austin 26.610 Bellville 4374
Bailey 6357 Muleshoe 4321
Bandera 20.197 Bandera 1208
Bastrop 72.248 Bastrop 7823
Baylor 3836 Seymour 2688
Bee 32.689 Beeville 12.736
Bell 276.975 Belton 17.330
Bexar 1.594.493 San Antonio 1.328.984
Blanco 9067 Johnson City 1528
Borden 585 Gail
Bosque 17.942 Meridian 1511
Bowie 91.553 Boston
Brazoria 294.233 Angleton 18.640
Brazos 170.954 Bryan 72.015
Brewster 9239 Alpine 6190
Briscoe 1479 Silverton 635
Brooks 7589 Falfurrias 4969
Brown 38.585 Brownwood 19.571
Burleson 16.598 Caldwell 3727
Burnet 43.689 Burnet 5706
Caldwell 36.705 Lockhart 13.613
Calhoun 20.352 Port Lavaca 11.443
Callahan 13.508 Baird 1633
Cameron 387.210 Brownsville 172.806
Camp 12.557 Pittsburg 4647
Carson 6358 Panhandle 2522
Cass 29.362 Linden 2142
Castro 7210 Dimmitt 3744
Chambers 28.771 Anahuac 1988
Cherokee 48.169 Rusk 5209
Childress 7556 Childress 6528
Clay 11.119 Henrietta 3262
Cochran 3088 Morton 1835
Coke 3561 Robert Lee 1044
Coleman 8550 Coleman 4675
Collin 730.690 McKinney 115.620
Collingsworth 2972 Wellington 2084
Colorado 20.666 Columbus 3904
Comal 105.187 New Braunfels 51.804
Comanche 13.541 Comanche 4223
Concho 3599 Paint Rock 278
Cooke 38.486 Gainesville 16.532
Coryell 72.156 Gatesville 15.205
Cottle 1610 Paducah 1255
Crane 3862 Crane 3061
Crockett 3789 Ozona 3436
Crosby 6310 Crosbyton 1641
Culberson 2484 Van Horn 2058
Dallam 6125 Dalhart 6923
Dallas 2.366.511 Dallas 1.240.499
Dawson 13.870 Lamesa 8998
Deaf Smith 18.452 Hereford 14.455
Delta 5375 Cooper 2143
Denton 612.357 Denton 115.506
DeWitt 19.730 Cuero 6465
Dickens 2511 Dickens 297
Dimmit 9845 Carrizo Springs 5377
Donley 3911 Clarendon 2031
Duval 12.187 San Diego 4476
Eastland 18.337 Eastland 3903
Ector 129.570 Odessa 96.824
Edwards 1938 Rocksprings 1151
El Paso 734.669 El Paso 606.913
Ellis 143.468 Waxahachie 27.311
Erath 35.633 Stephenville 16.715
Falls 17.149 Marlin 6019
Fannin 33.067 Bonham 10.594
Fayette 22.537 La Grange 4668
Fisher 3957 Roby 617
Floyd 6655 Floydada 3152
Foard 1420 Crowell 996
Fort Bend 509.822 Richmond 13.404
Franklin 11.094 Mount Vernon 2805
Freestone 18.797 Fairfield 3586
Frio 16.133 Pearsall 7665
Gaines 14.925 Seminole 6057
Galveston 283.987 Galveston 56.940
Garza 4700 Post 3556
Gillespie 23.507 Fredericksburg 10.873
Glasscock 1174 Garden City
Goliad 7154 Goliad 2037
Gonzales 19.210 Gonzales 7359
Gray 22.047 Pampa 17.204
Grayson 118.675 Sherman 37.710
Gregg 117.119 Longview 76.816
Grimes 25.603 Anderson 277
Guadalupe 112.777 Seguin 26.051
Hale 35.731 Plainview 21.656
Hall 3482 Memphis 2255
Hamilton 8138 Hamilton 2984
Hansford 5235 Spearman 2920
Hardeman 4124 Quanah 2599
Hardin 51.597 Kountze 2161
Harris 3.935.855 Houston 2.208.180
Harrison 63.504 Marshall 23.872
Hartley 5179 Channing 329
Haskell 5249 Haskell 2641
Hays 141.480 San Marcos 50.373
Hemphill 3360 Canadian 2212
Henderson 78.897 Athens 12.260
Hidalgo 710.514 Edinburg 68.724
Hill 35.352 Hillsboro 8908
Hockley 22.226 Levelland 12.445
Hood 49.170 Granbury 8029
Hopkins 33.769 Sulphur Springs 15.387
Houston 22.769 Crockett 6906
Howard 32.295 Big Spring 24.075
Hudspeth 3294 Sierra Blanca 533
Hunt 82.945 Greenville 25.674
Hutchinson 21.845 Stinnett 1817
Irion 1743 Mertzon 826
Jack 8833 Jacksboro 4516
Jackson 14.093 Edna 5798
Jasper 34.553 Jasper 7276
Jeff Davis 2264 Fort Davis 1050
Jefferson 241.975 Beaumont 109.579
Jim Hogg 4973 Hebbronville 4498
Jim Wells 41.119 Alice 19.759
Johnson 149.797 Cleburne 29.552
Jones 19.295 Anson 2322
Karnes 15.067 Karnes City 3357
Kaufman 96.373 Kaufman 8505
Kendall 31.342 Boerne 9414
Kenedy 394 Sarita
Kent 735 Jayton 441
Kerr 47.860 Kerrville 22.661
Kimble 4461 Junction 2576
King 291 Guthrie
Kinney 3320 Brackettville 1818
Kleberg 30.390 Kingsville 24.391
Knox 3524 Benjamin 222
La Salle 6009 Cotulla 3613
Lamar 49.255 Paris 26.083
Lamb 13.901 Littlefield 6075
Lampasas 20.877 Lampasas 7867
Lavaca 18.754 Hallettsville 2507
Lee 16.356 Giddings 5433
Leon 16.462 Centerville 953
Liberty 75.434 Liberty 8382
Limestone 22.421 Groesbeck 4296
Lipscomb 3033 Lipscomb 44
Live Oak 11.349 George West 2266
Llano 18.394 Llano 3263
Loving 55 Mentone
Lubbock 260.901 Lubbock 217.326
Lynn 5882 Tahoka 2565
Madison 13.379 Madisonville 4366
Marion 10.741 Jefferson 1954
Martin 4464 Stanton 2239
Mason 3890 Mason 2224
Matagorda 37.024 Bay City 17.805
Maverick 51.656 Eagle Pass 26.285
McCulloch 7862 Brady 5278
McLennan 228.123 Waco 122.222
McMullen 874 Tilden
Medina 43.826 Hondo 8902
Menard 2134 Menard 1493
Midland 126.408 Midland 103.880
Milam 24.855 Cameron 5758
Mills 5031 Goldthwaite 1755
Mitchell 9275 Colorado City 3921
Montague 19.656 Montague
Montgomery 412.638 Conroe 52.516
Moore 20.081 Dumas 13.706
Morris 13.064 Daingerfield 2480
Motley 1287 Matador 666
Nacogdoches 62.435 Nacogdoches 32.006
Navarro 49.396 Corsicana 26.463
Newton 13.827 Newton 2277
Nolan 14.614 Sweetwater 10.472
Nueces 321.135 Corpus Christi 285.507
Ochiltree 9587 Perryton 8265
Oldham 2075 Vega 878
Orange 82.669 Orange 17.425
Palo Pinto 27.321 Palo Pinto
Panola 23.002 Carthage 6605
Parker 108.687 Weatherford 25.749
Parmer 9423 Farwell 1274
Pecos 15.969 Fort Stockton 7347
Polk 46.332 Livingston 6251
Potter 120.775 Amarillo 186.106
Presidio 7575 Marfa 1887
Rains 11.211 Emory 1486
Randall 113.036 Canyon 14.077
Reagan 3053 Big Lake 2639
Real 2965 Leakey 371
Red River 13.108 Clarksville 3508
Reeves 11.183 Pecos 7898
Refugio 7358 Refugio 2726
Roberts 831 Miami 550
Robertson 15.819 Franklin 1456
Rockwall 73.810 Rockwall 33.826
Runnels 10.362 Ballinger 3774
Rusk 48.568 Henderson 11.599
Sabine 10.138 Hemphill 1037
San Augustine 8639 San Augustine 2365
San Jacinto 24.818 Coldspring 764
San Patricio 68.520 Sinton 5392
San Saba 5968 San Saba 2549
Schleicher 2811 Eldorado 1850
Scurry 16.011 Snyder 10.447
Shackelford 3161 Albany 1830
Shelby 26.512 Center 5764
Sherman 2905 Stratford 1885
Smith 198.705 Tyler 96.451
Somervell 7757 Glen Rose 2771
Starr 61.833 Rio Grande City 13.848
Stephens 9538 Breckenridge 5606
Sterling 1245 Sterling City 968
Stonewall 1405 Aspermont 851
Sutton 4303 Sonora 3060
Swisher 7700 Tulia 4631
Tarrant 1.717.435 Fort Worth 681.818
Taylor 126.540 Abilene 116.219
Terrell 934 Sanderson 861
Terry 12.189 Brownfield 9001
Throckmorton 1664 Throckmorton 811
Titus 29.392 Mount Pleasant 14.770
Tom Green 106.342 San Angelo 90.483
Travis 974.365 Austin 743.074
Trinity 14.168 Groveton 1119
Tyler 20.403 Woodville 2277
Upshur 37.924 Gilmer 5208
Upton 3052 Rankin 726
Uvalde 26.581 Uvalde 16.222
Val Verde 48.029 Del Rio 36.582
Van Zandt 52.055 Canton 3624
Victoria 86.291 Victoria 62.246
Walker 63.902 Huntsville 37.747
Waller 35.933 Hempstead 7223
Ward 10.268 Monahans 6334
Washington 32.034 Brenham 15.098
Webb 233.152 Laredo 217.506
Wharton 40.897 Wharton 9227
Wheeler 4793 Wheeler 1215
Wichita 128.025 Wichita Falls 101.590
Wilbarger 14.037 Vernon 11.066
Willacy 20.513 Raymondville 9501
Williamson 373.363 Georgetown 46.867
Wilson 39.264 Floresville 7387
Winkler 6543 Kermit 5136
Wise 57.589 Decatur 6275
Wood 42.004 Quitman 2233
Yoakum 7447 Plains 1460
Young 17.683 Graham 8518
Zapata 13.605 Zapata 4856
Zavala 11.665 Crystal City 7133

Politics

Texas Capitol

The executive branch of the state is headed by a governor, who is directly elected by the voters in the state. In 2014, Greg Abbott of the Republican Party was elected governor of the state of Texas. On January 20, 2015, he succeeded his party colleague Rick Perry, who held the governorship for more than 14 years. Perry previously served as Lieutenant Governor of Texas under George W. Bush and succeeded Bush after he was elected President of the United States in 2000.

The legislature consists of the Texas House of Representatives (Texas House of Representatives) with 150 members and the Texas Senate (Texas Senate) with 31 members. Republicans have had a majority in the Senate since the 1996 election, and in the House since the 2002 election. Before that, the Democrats were in the majority.

Texas’s representation in the United States Congress consists of two senators and 36 representatives. The senators are Ted Cruz and John Cornyn. When Texas joined in 1845, Texas got two representatives; this number has steadily increased to the current 36 due to population growth. In 1963 Lyndon B. Johnson from Texas became president of the United States, after first serving as vice president under John F. Kennedy.

Economy

a pumpjack

Until World War II, Texas was a predominantly agricultural area, with agriculture and livestock, with petroleum as the main industry. In 1926, San Antonio was the largest city with more than 120,000 inhabitants.

After World War II, Texas became highly industrialized. Information technology became important to the economy, alongside oil and gas extraction, power generation and trade, agriculture and industry, which had always been important. The two major economic centers are the Houston Metropolitan Area around Houston (petrochemicals; NASA), and the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex around Dallas and Fort Worth, the center of agriculture and information technology. The cost of living in Texas is relatively low: there is no state income tax, commerce taxes are low, and government intervention is low. Texas knows from the significant economic growth in the 1990s.

Education

There are several universities in Texas, including University of Texas System, Texas Christian University (TCU), Texas A&M University, and Baylor University. The University of Texas System is the largest with over 190,000 students. The university has several campuses; the University of Texas at Austin is the best known.

Flag of Texas