New Mexico (State)

State of New Mexico
Coordinates 34°NB, 106°WL
General
Surface 315.194 km²
(0,2% water)
Residents 2.082.224
(6,62 inhabitants/km²)
Capital city Santa Fe
Politics
Governor Michelle Lujan Grisham (D)
Other
Time zone Mountain Standard Time (UTC−7)
Joined 6 januari 1912
Nickname Land of Enchantment
Website newmexico.gov

New Mexico (Dutch: Nieuw-Mexico, Spanish: Nuevo México) is one of the states of the United States.

The capital of New Mexico is Santa Fe. The standard abbreviation for the state, nicknamed Land of Enchantment (“Land of Enchantment”), is NM. New Mexico has the highest percentage of Hispanic and Hispanic population within the United States, and the second highest percentage of Native Americans after Alaska.

History

The Clovis culture is named after the place Clovis, where the first remains of this culture were found, characterized by elongated spearheads. The carriers of the Clovis culture were big game hunters.

Before the arrival of the Europeans, Indian tribes such as the Navajos and Apaches inhabited the area. The elevated city of Acoma Pueblo is the oldest inhabited place in the United States. The oldest house dates from 1144, but this place may have been inhabited since the beginning of the era. The Pueblo Bonito complex (the well-known example of the Chaco culture) was built as early as the 9th century.

Around 1540, the Spanish conquistador Francisco de Coronado passed through the area, searching in vain for large amounts of gold. His expedition retreated to Mexico two years later. In 1595, the province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México was founded and three years later Juan de Oñate began colonizing the area. The city of Santa Fe was founded in 1610.

After Mexico became independent in 1821, New Mexico became part of that country. In 1848, after the loss of the Mexican-American War, Mexico ceded a large area, including most of present-day New Mexico. In 1853 a relatively small piece was purchased (the so -called Gadsden purchase).

On December 20, 1861, General Sibley, commander of the Army of New Mexico, issued a proclamation declaring to seize New Mexico for the Confederate States of America. The campaign in New Mexico lasted from February to April, with the Battle of Peralta on April 14, with a northern victory.

With the construction of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, population growth really got going. In 1878 the Lincoln County War took place. This was a massacre between different groups of criminals, including Billy the Kid. New Mexico became the 47th state of the United States on January 4, 1912.

In 1943, the Los Alamos National Laboratory was opened in the north of the state. This was one of the three main sites of the Manhattan atomic bomb development project, and on July 16, 1945, the first atomic bomb named Trinity was detonated in the southeast of the state.

On July 8, 1947, the Roswell Incident took place near the town of Roswell. Soon the story spread that a flying saucer had crashed here. This is fodder for ufologists to this day.

Geography

From Rio Grande Gorge Bridge

New Mexico covers an area of ​​315,194 km². The average altitude is 1735 m above sea level; the highest point is Wheeler Peak (4,011 m), part of the Rocky Mountains, which traverse New Mexico from north to south. The main river is the Rio Grande which rises in Colorado and cuts across the state from north to south. In the north, the river flows through the eighty kilometer long Rio Grande Gorge.

Due to the altitude, there is a high mountain climate in the north and east, while the south and west have a desert climate.

New Mexico borders the country of Mexico and the states of Texas, Oklahoma, Arizona, Colorado, and Utah. The point where the borders intersect with the last three is called Four Corners. New Mexico is in the Mountain time zone.

The state boasts many natural attractions, such as the stalactite caves at Carlsbad and the white sands of White Sands National Monument.

Language

Languages ​​Spoken in New Mexico
Engels 64%
Spanish 28%
Navajo 4%

The state has no official language, but the state’s 1912 constitution states that New Mexico is a bilingual state through the use of English and Spanish. State officials should know two languages. In 1995, the state’s national anthem became bilingual: New Mexico — Mi Lindo Nuevo México. In 2008, it became the first state to allow public schools to use a textbook in Navajo, an indigenous language spoken by many Native Americans in this state.

Demography and Economics

According to TRACKAAH, New Mexico had a population of 1,819,046 (6 per km²) in 2000, of whom about 40% were of Hispanic or Latin American background. The largest city is Albuquerque. There are also extensive Indian reservations in the state.

Large parts of the state are used for various purposes by the US military. The atomic bomb was developed in Los Alamos during World War II.

Spaceport America is located in the state from which commercial space flights can be made. The gross product of the state in 1999 was 51 billion dollars.

Religion

Religions in New Mexico
Roman Catholic 42%
Protestant 28%
• Large traditional churches 8%
• Evangelical 20%
• Anders 2%
Mormon 3%
Jew 2%
Buddhist 2%
Anders 3%
Irreligious 22%

The majority of the population is Catholic and the majority of Protestants profess evangelism.

Administrative division

According to COUNTRYAAH, New Mexico is divided into 33 counties. A county in the United States is a local government that is one level lower than the state.

County Inhabitants
1 July, 2007
County Seat Inhabitants
1 July, 2007
Bernalillo 629.292 Albuquerque 518.271
Catron 3431 Reserve 326
Chaves 62.595 Roswell 45.569
Cibola 27.261 Grants 8876
Colfax 13.216 Raton 6584
Curry 45.328 Clovis 33.182
De Baca 1916 Fort Sumner 983
Doña Ana 198.791 Las Cruces 89.722
Eddy 51.002 Carlsbad 25.033
Grant 29.699 Silver City 9977
Guadalupe 4447 Santa Rosa 2534
Harding 716 Mosquero 87
Hidalgo 4945 Lordsburg 2665
Lea 58.043 Lovington 9793
Lincoln 20.783 Carrizozo 1029
Los Alamos 18.558 Los Alamos 12.090
Luna 26.996 Deming 15.277
McKinley 70.059 Gallup 18.802
Mora 5069 Mora 3929
Otero 63.129 Alamogordo 35.607
Quay 8971 Tucumcari 5123
Rio Arriba 40.827 Tierra Amarilla 3447
Roosevelt 19.142 Portales 11.992
San Juan 122.427 Aztec 6810
San Miguel 28.655 Las Vegas 13.539
Sandoval 117.866 Bernalillo 7121
Santa Fe 142.955 Santa Fe 73.199
Sierra 12.316 Truth or Consequences 6689
Socorro 18.118 Socorro 8418
Taos 31.608 Taos 5265
Torrance 16.598 Estancia 1529
Union 3792 Clayton 2100
Valencia 71.364 Los Lunas 12.115

Politics

Het New Mexico State Capitol

The executive branch of the state is headed by a governor, who is directly elected by the voters in the state. The 2018 gubernatorial election was won by Democratic Party ‘s Michelle Lujan Grisham. She took office as governor of New Mexico in January 2019.

The legislature consists of the New Mexico House of Representatives (New Mexico House of Representatives) with 70 members and the New Mexico Senate (New Mexico Senate) with 42 members. Both houses have had Democratic majority for more than two decades, with the exception of the House in one term (2014-2016), when Republicans had a majority.

New Mexico House of Representatives (2017)38

32

38 32

The 70 seats are distributed as follows:

■ Democratic: 38

■ Republican: 32

New Mexico Senate (2017)26

16

26 16

The 42 seats are distributed as follows:

■ Democratic: 26

■ Republican: 16

Culture

By brandende Zozobra

The capital Santa Fe has a large artist community. The art movement harks back to age-old Apache and Navajo traditions, reflected in painted pottery, weaving, and jewelry. The modern painter Georgia O’Keeffe has played a major role in putting the state on the map. In Santa Fe, the Fiestas de Santa Fe are held every fall, culminating in the 15 meter high burning puppet ”Zozobra”.

The state has its own cuisine, with the New Mexico chile, a gingerbread nut, being the most famous. These peppers are often dried in ristra (long bunches on a rope) that are also used as decoration. Other typical dishes are the Bizcochito butter cookies with cinnamon and anise and the spicy Capirotada bread pudding.

Flag of New Mexico