New Jersey (State)

State of New Jersey
Coordinates 40°0’NB, 74°30’WL
General
Surface 22.591 km²
(15,7% water)
Residents 9.288.994 (2020)
(389 inhabitants/km²)
Capital city Trenton
Politics
Governor Phil Murphy (D)
Other
Time zone Eastern Standard Time (UTC−5)
Joined 18 december 1787
Nickname Garden State
Website nj.gov

New Jersey is a state of the United States. The standard abbreviation for New Jersey is NJ. The capital is Trenton. With a population of approximately 8.9 million in an area of ​​22,000 km², New Jersey is the most populous state in the United States.

In the 18th century, New Jersey was nicknamed the “Garden State” (“Garden State”) because of its fertile land, sandwiched between New York and Philadelphia, but it later became one of the most industrialized states.

History

New Jersey originated from the Swedish colony of New Sweden, at the mouth of the Delaware River in southwestern present-day New Jersey. The population of these was small and consisted mainly of Finns besides Swedes. After being in Swedish possession for about 17 years, the area was conquered in 1655 by the Dutch from the more northerly colony of New Netherland. In 1643, Dutch settlers, on the orders of Governor Willem Kieft of New Netherland, entered Pavonia (now Jersey City) carried out a massacre of Native Americans, killing 120, including women and children. This attack was part of the Kieft War (1643-1645).

New Jersey began on March 12, 1664 as a private colony of the British Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley. They had been given the territory of James, the Duke of York, later King James II. It was part of a piece of land James had been given by his brother, then King Charles II. Most of the settlers from New England settled in the first ten years. On March 18, 1673, Berkeley sold its half, west, to a group of English Quakers, who settled there on the Delaware River. Between 1674 and 1702New Jersey consisted of two counties: West Jersey and East Jersey.

American Revolution

Washington Crosses the Delaware, 1776. Painting by Leutze

New Jersey was one of thirteen colonies to rebel against British rule. Major battles took place at Trenton and Princeton in late December 1776 and early January 1777, after which the British had to withdraw from the state. The battle of Trenton is especially epic. George Washington rowed his troops across the Delaware River in bad weather on Christmas Eve and managed to ambush the sleeping British troops in Trenton. New Jersey became the third state of the United States on December 18, 1787.

19th and 20th century

During the American Civil War (1861-1865), the state sided with the north. New Jersey was the last of the northern states to abolish slavery on February 15, 1804. Slavery, however, had long been abolished at the federal level by then.

In 1876, inventor Thomas Edison established his laboratory in Menlo Park. He would make many inventions here, such as the light bulb, the film camera and the phonograph. In 1893 he started a film studio. This was a room on a bogie that he could position in such a way that maximum sunlight always came in. In the same year he had The Great Train Robbery recorded nearby in Milltown. This film was a milestone in American film history for several reasons. Fort Lee became the center of American cinema until the motion picture industry in the 1990swent to Hollywood because of the better daylight.

In the late 1800s, Atlantic City became a popular destination for tourists and day trippers. The famous boardwalk, the Atlantic City Boardwalk, was built for strolling. During the Prohibition of 1920 – 1933 the city experienced its peak. Enoch L. Johnson, who was not only a sheriff but also owned illegal drinking and gambling establishments and brothels, was easily bribed, allowing the city to do everything prohibited elsewhere. After that, the city went downhill. From 1976, the construction of large casinos was started and the city crawled out of the valley again.

From 1892 to 1954, Ellis Island, belonging to the Port of New York but located in New Jersey, was the main location for European immigrants to enter the country. Many settled in New Jersey, resulting in a diverse population.

Geography

The state of New Jersey covers 22,608 km², of which 19,231 km² is land. The highest point (550 m) is in the far north of the state. From north to south, the total length is 267 km. The widest point from east to west is 199 km wide.

New Jersey is located on the Atlantic Ocean. It borders New York State to the north and Pennsylvania and Delaware to the west. The entire western border is formed by the Delaware River. The state belongs to the Eastern time zone.

The main conurbation is northeastern Newark, which is effectively integrated with New York City. In the west, several places have merged with Philadelphia, located on the other side of the Delaware, in Pennsylvania. Other major places in New Jersey are the capital Trenton and the gambling city of Atlantic City.

Demography and Economics

According to TRACKAAH, New Jersey had a population of 8,414,350. This equates to 372 inhabitants per km², making it the most populous state. It also has the highest percentage of residents living in urban areas. The state has the second highest percentage of Jews, second highest percentage of Muslims and third highest percentage of Italians.

Even though the state is highly urbanized, agriculture and livestock still play a major role. The state is known for its cranberries, blueberries and tomatoes, which are grown extensively for the Campbell’s cannery. There are also horse farms. Until recently, Atlantic City was the only place in the northeastern United States where gambling was legal.

The gross product of the state in 1999 was $332 billion. New Jersey is the state with the highest per capita income. Near Trenton is the famous Princeton University. New Jersey’s largest university is the equally highly regarded Rutgers University. New Jersey is the home and headquarters of pharmaceutical giants Johnson & Johnson and MSD (Merck Sharp & Dohme) and one of the two headquarters of Teva Pharmaceutical Industries. The Port Newark–Elizabeth Marine Terminal is one of the three largest container ports in the United States and a major component of thePort of New York and New Jersey. The port is near the Newark Liberty International Airport, the state’s largest airport and one of three major airports serving the New York City metropolitan area. Both the port and airport are owned by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.

Administrative division

According to COUNTRYAAH, New Jersey is divided into 21 counties.

County Inhabitants
1 July, 2007
County Seat Inhabitants
1 July, 2007
Atlantic 270.644 Mays Landing 2.482
Bergen 895.744 Hackensack 43.062
Burlington 446.817 Mount Holly 10.335
Camden 513.769 Camden 78.675
Cape May 96.422 Cape May Court House 4.433
Cumberland 155.544 Bridgeton 24.575
Essex 776.087 Newark 280.135
Gloucester 285.853 Woodbury 10.457
Hudson 598.160 Jersey City 242.389
Hunterdon 129.348 Flemington 4.237
Mercer 365.449 Trenton 82.804
Middlesex 788.629 New Brunswick 50.534
Monmouth 642.030 Freehold 11.465
Morris 488.475 Morristown 19.122
Ocean 565.493 Toms River 95.035
Passaic 492.115 Paterson 146.545
Salem 66.016 Salem 5.678
Somerset 323.552 Somerville 12.682
Sussex 151.478 Newton 8.167
Union 524.658 Elizabeth 124.862
Warren 109.737 Belvidere 2.645

Politics

Government

The executive branch of the state is headed by a governor, who is directly elected by the voters in the state. In November 2017, Democratic Party Phil Murphy was elected governor of the state of New Jersey. He succeeded Republican Chris Christie on January 16, 2018.

The state legislature (New Jersey Legislature) consists of the New Jersey General Assembly with 80 members and the New Jersey Senate with 40 members. Both chambers have a large Democratic majority.

New Jersey General Assembly (2018)54

26

54 26

The 80 seats are distributed as follows:

■ Democratic: 54

■ Republican: 26

New Jersey Senate (2018)25

15

25 15

The 40 seats are distributed as follows:

■ Democratic: 25

■ Republican: 15

New Jersey is one of the few states to hold its quadrennial elections in odd years.

Policy

The state is one of the more (social) liberal in the United States. Since 1992, a majority has voted for the Democratic candidate in US presidential elections. Before that, it was a mostly Republican state.

The state has one of the strictest gun laws in the United States. In addition, a law was passed in 2007 that abolished the death penalty in the state.

Since 2007, gay couples have had the same rights as married (straight) couples, and since October 2013, after a law and lawsuit blocked by Republican Governor Christie, they can also marry.

Culture

New Jersey is the only state (in the US) that does not have a national anthem. Sometimes the song I’m From New Jersey is seen as an unofficial national anthem. A common joke about New Jersey is that this state actually has no identity. After all, it is sandwiched between Philadelphia and New York and the major population centers are part of agglomerations of these cities. Another joke is that there is only industry to be found, this image was created because the people who cross the state on the highway, the New Jersey Turnpike, mainly see factories.

Many inventions have been made in New Jersey, including the light bulb, film camera, zipper, transistor, FM radio, lithium batteries, the airship, and the ice cream cone. The state is also called the Diner capital because the state has more diners than any other state. The necessary manufacturers of dining establishments can therefore be found in New Jersey. Several states claim to have invented the Submarine Sandwich, including New Jersey.

In the American version of the Monopoly game, the streets are all in and around Atlantic City. The most expensive street is Boardwalk.

Flag of New Jersey