Before entering fully into the the term basement, we are going to proceed to discover its etymological origin. In this case, we can say that it derives from Latin and that it is the result of the sum of two clearly delimited components:
-The noun “basis”, which can be translated as “base”.
-The suffix “-mento”.
According to DigoPaul, the concept of basement is used in the field of architecture with reference to the body that, made up of the pedestal and the base, is located below the stem of the column. It should be noted that a pedestal is what provides support to something, while the base is the seat of a column.
It can be said that the basement is an element that acts as a platform, supporting a construction as a support since it provides support to the structure in question. Throughout history, different styles of foundations have developed, each with its own characteristics beyond its main function.
Regarding the bases, we have to state that there are many types of those that exist. Thus, we come across the suspended one, the aticurga, the continuous one, the compound one, the one with reedings or the so-called funicular, among many others.
These types must be said that it is important to know that one or the other is used depending on the architecture. Specifically, when we speak of classical architecture, the base will be of one kind or another depending on whether it belongs to the Doric, Ionic or Corinthian style.
In Ancient Greece, for example, the foundations used to be based on a crepidoma (a platform with steps or steps) or a plinth. The columns, in this framework, were supported by a plan known as stylobate.
At a general level, always in the field of architecture, the lower sector of the building is called a basement, which is made up of several planes. This basement has a different shape compared to the higher planes.
Several Mesoamerican peoples of antiquity, for their part, developed characteristic pyramidal bases. A stepped structure known as teocallis, which used to be decorated with reliefs, allowed access to the temple located at the top.
Within the automotive field we can also highlight the existence and use of the term basement that we are now dealing with. In that case, it is used to refer to an essential part of the structure of the car in question. It is exactly the base and consists of a stiffening bar and a clamping device, mainly.
Likewise, it is also used within what is the field of geology. In this case it is referred to to refer to a rock layer that, due to its levels of permeability and porosity, does not have hydrocarbon deposits underneath.
As a general rule, the basement is usually made up of igneous-type rocks.
In a language more colloquial or informal, finally, it is known as a base element providing support to a statue and the pedestal that can raise and highlight a piece of reduced size so that it can be seen more easily.